A couple of months after announcing severe budget cuts to the federal education system, Brazil’s Education Ministry announced an ambitious plan to increase sources of revenue and budget flexibility for federal universities. The project is called “Future-se” (“Future yourself”) and provides incentives to attract private funding to universities. In addition to government capital—which covers approximately 90 percent of the universities’ costs—private funds would be used to invest in innovation, entrepreneurship, research, and the expansion of education.

</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The project will remain open to public input through an online forum until August 9. After that, it will be presented to Congress for approval. The attempt to attract private investment comes amidst extensive budget cuts in education; university funding will be reduced by 54 percent in some cases. The academic community has been highly critical of the project, arguing that </span><a href="https://brazilian.report/power/2019/05/11/public-universities-research-brazil/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">public universities</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> should not be influenced by private capital.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The dean of the Federal University of Ceará called the bill the “biggest attack” on public education. On the other hand, the Education Minister Abraham Weintraub—known for his attacks on what he calls &#8216;leftist indoctrination&#8217; in schools—has claimed the proposal represents the “liberation of federal universities.”</span></p> <h2>What does the government propose?</h2> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The bill seeks to attract private investment through a series of initiatives that are similar to those adopted by major American universities, such as Harvard. An endowment fund would be created, welcoming donations from both alumni and businesses. Moreover, it establishes naming-rights for properties, allowing major donors to have university buildings named after them.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Separately, the Economy Ministry donated BRL 50 billion-worth in real estate to the Education Ministry, which will be used to generate revenue through leases or sales.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The bill also hopes to modernize and expand libraries and museums belonging to the universities using the laws that grant tax incentives for those who invest in education and cultural projects. The Ministry also seeks to attract foreign direct investment, which would be used to create study-abroad programs, start-ups, and technology parks as well as to promote the issuing of royalties and patents.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The plan also targets teachers, providing them with bonuses whenever their work gets published. This model is considered archaic since it values quantity over quality, said Nilson Machado, professor at the University of São Paulo’s Education School in an interview to newspaper </span><i><span style="font-weight: 400;">Estado de S.Paulo</span></i><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <h2>Would the project actually help universities?</h2> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Federal universities have been struggling to make ends meet amid budget cuts. With limited funding, some have reached the point of being unable to pay their water and power bills, cleaning staff and for needed construction.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“When you create new alternatives for funding [such as receiving private investment], this is essentially something positive,” said Paulo Augusto Nascimento, a researcher at the Institute of Applied Economic Research (Ipea). “Under today’s scenario, in which we have a severe fiscal crisis, universities face serious problems [when it comes to managing bills.]”</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Still, the plan faces severe backlash—especially among academics, who in Brazil usually distrust private ventures.&nbsp;</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Vera Jacob, coordinator of the post-graduate program at the Federal University of Pará, is a strong critic. In an interview to news website </span><a href="http://nexojornal.com.br"><i><span style="font-weight: 400;">Nexo</span></i></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">, she argued that the public sector shouldn’t receive investment from private individuals, as companies will always target profit. Therefore, she says it is likely that private investors will thrive, while universities will benefit very little.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Ms. Jacob also denounced the creation of an </span><a href="https://brazilian.report/money/2019/02/22/museum-brazil-endowment-funds/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">endowment fund</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">, mirroring universities such as Harvard. She argued that Harvard is smaller than the typical Brazilian university. The Massachusetts-based school has approximately 23,000 students, while Brazilian federal universities have, on average, twice as many. Therefore, Ms. Jacob insists that the model cannot be replicated in Brazil.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“Our universities won’t become like Harvard overnight, but the idea is that some university departments will be able to attract more funds in the long-term,” Mr. Nascimento told </span><b>The Brazilian Report</b><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">He acknowledges that there’s a clear resistance to the bill, especially because it was drafted by the Bolsonaro administration—which is </span><a href="https://brazilian.report/power/2019/07/10/austerity-reforms-lawmakers-public-funds-campaigns/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">extremely unpopular in university circles</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">, even before the budget cuts. However, Mr. Nascimento said that the government must nevertheless define conditions and opportunities of the project more clearly.</span></p> <h2>Private funding of federal universities</h2> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Although some say that federal universities will not benefit from private funding, there is a precedent to this. In fact, there are 96 foundations in Brazil that capture private investment to aid federal universities. Some of them have been around for 25 years and have generated BRL 5 billion in revenue, launching 22,000 projects that benefit research, innovation, and the expansion of tertiary education. The </span><i><span style="font-weight: 400;">“Future-se”</span></i><span style="font-weight: 400;"> project would follow a similar pattern, but on a greater scale.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“[The project] will decrease [federal universities’] reliance on public funding. When public money becomes scarce, universities face many problems like the ones we see now,” said Mr. Nascimento. “I just don’t know to what extent this project will actually attract private funding to the universities.”</span></p> <h2>A new trend in Brazilian private education</h2> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">During the Workers&#8217; Party years in power, there was a massification of access to college-level education through a financing program called Fies—which was created in 1999 but expanded in 2010. Essentially, the government would help students pay for private education, as places in the generally more prestigious public institutions are scarce.&nbsp;</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">In reality, though, the program had flaws. In order to have as much uptake as possible, Fies established loose credit-rating rules, allowing millions with no realistic possibility of paying for the student loans to join the program. Their debt, however, was backed by the government, which created a sort of risk-free capitalism—thousands of schools became cash cows, as public money would guarantee they would receive tuition payments, one way or another.</span></p> <div class="flourish-embed" data-src="visualisation/530200"></div> <p><script src="https://public.flourish.studio/resources/embed.js"></script></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">In 2016, the government finally decided to increase interest rates and restrict the money inflow. That had taken a major hit on the market value of education companies, which have since turned their business model towards long-distance education.</span></p> <div class="flourish-embed" data-src="visualisation/530170"></div> <p><script src="https://public.flourish.studio/resources/embed.js"></script></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Giants of the sector Estácio, Ser and Kroton are now investing heavily in long-distance courses, some of which are exclusively online.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">In three years, Estácio has opened 407 educational centers, holding courses for remote learning. Since 2017, Kroton has opened 500 centers, and plans to open 100 more by the end of the year, reaching a total of 1,510 educational hubs across Brazil. Ser also plans on opening another 100 centers this year.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Students are latching onto the trend. For example, 52 percent of Kroton’s students used to attend in-person classes. Now, only 17 percent do. With the opening of so many small centers to accommodate long-distance classes, many hubs struggle to attract enough students to sustain themselves.&nbsp;</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">For example, a hub must have between 150 to 450 students to generate revenue, but most of Ser’s hubs only have 88 students on average. Another barrier these courses might face is that many professions require in-person education, suggesting this new trend in the private sector has serious limitations.

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BY Martha Castro

Martha Castro is an intern at The Brazilian Report. She is a Brazilian journalism and political science student at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois.