Every two years, the UN publishes its World Population Prospects, analyzing population trends in 235 countries and regions. The data is based on national censuses, sample surveys, and historical patterns. According to its latest document, the Brazilian population is set to peak in 2045, with 229 million residents (from today’s 211 million). After that point, the rapidly-aging country will become less and less populated.
Brazil has just been overtaken by Pakistan as the world’s fifth-largest population, and is expected to drop out of the top 10 by 2100, when countries such as Egypt, Angola, Ethiopia, and Tanzania will have larger populations.