Climate change already affecting Brazil

When Brazil ratified the Paris Accords on Climate Change in 2016, the largest transnational commitment to curb greenhouse-effect emissions, the country promised to reduce its emissions by 37 percent before 2025 and 43 percent by 2030. It is a bold goal that will take a considerable amount of political effort. So, what are the proposals of each presidential candidate for the environment?

It should be noted that projects regarding energy transition, the relationship between agribusiness and deforestation, and how to curb the effects of climate change also tell us a lot about each presidential candidate’s plan for Brazil’s future development. Environmental issues are connected to deep structural issues which are important for our country, such as transportation, water resources, fuel, and energy, among others.

Here’s how the programs of each of the main candidates address these issues:

</span></p> <h2>Jair Bolsonaro</h2> <div id="attachment_9409" style="width: 1034px" class="wp-caption alignnone"><img aria-describedby="caption-attachment-9409" class="wp-image-9409 size-large" src="https://brazilian.report/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/ffraz_abr20180722_1228-1024x683.jpg" alt="Jair Bolsonaro environment brazil 2018 election president " width="1024" height="683" srcset="https://brazilian.report/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/ffraz_abr20180722_1228-1024x683.jpg 1024w, https://brazilian.report/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/ffraz_abr20180722_1228-300x200.jpg 300w, https://brazilian.report/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/ffraz_abr20180722_1228-768x512.jpg 768w, https://brazilian.report/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/ffraz_abr20180722_1228-610x407.jpg 610w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /><p id="caption-attachment-9409" class="wp-caption-text">Jair Bolsonaro</p></div> <h4>Energy</h4> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">The far-right candidate wants to promote the Northeast region&#8217;s potential for producing energy from renewable sources such as solar and wind.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">He also wants to reduce the process to issue environmental permits for small hydropower plants to up to three months, and increase the role of natural gas in Brazil&#8217;s energy matrix.</span></li> </ul> <h4>Transportation and fuels</h4> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Mr. Bolsonaro&#8217;s program has no proposal for the issue.</span></li> </ul> <h4>Agriculture and forestry</h4> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">To create a new federal agricultural structure, responsible for commerce, management of the environment, food security, rural development, and innovation.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Mr. Bolsonaro has positioned himself against indigenous reservations. &#8220;The indigenous people want to integrate to society. We can&#8217;t keep him in reservations like zoo animals.&#8221; </span></li> </ul> <h4>Water</h4> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Mr. Bolsonaro&#8217;s program has no proposal for the issue.</span></li> </ul> <h4>Development</h4> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Reduce the local content rules for the oil and gas sector, promoting competition.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Privatizing a &#8220;substantial part&#8221; of Petrobras&#8217; refinery, retail, and transportation activities.</span></li> </ul> <hr /> <h2>Fernando Haddad</h2> <div id="attachment_9410" style="width: 1034px" class="wp-caption alignnone"><img aria-describedby="caption-attachment-9410" class="size-large wp-image-9410" src="https://brazilian.report/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/30869303618_e012483f17_k-1024x637.jpg" alt="Fernando Haddad environment brazil 2018 election president " width="1024" height="637" srcset="https://brazilian.report/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/30869303618_e012483f17_k-1024x637.jpg 1024w, https://brazilian.report/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/30869303618_e012483f17_k-300x187.jpg 300w, https://brazilian.report/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/30869303618_e012483f17_k-768x478.jpg 768w, https://brazilian.report/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/30869303618_e012483f17_k-610x379.jpg 610w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /><p id="caption-attachment-9410" class="wp-caption-text">Fernando Haddad</p></div> <h4>Energy</h4> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">More state control, more investments to expand renewable energy, lower tariffs, and &#8220;social participation.&#8221;</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Mr. Haddad is against privatizing Eletrobras, the country&#8217;s state-run power company.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">He defends investments in infrastructure based on clean energy, live waterways, and railways.</span></li> </ul> <h4>Transportation and fuels</h4> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Mr. Haddad&#8217;s program has no proposal for the issue.</span></li> </ul> <h4>Agriculture and forestry</h4> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Create a &#8220;green tax,&#8221; which would recompensate low carbon producers to reduce effects of climate change.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Strengthen conservation units.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Implement the Forest Code, without the delays asked by producers.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Rural reform, giving land to traditional former slave communities (quilombolas) and indigenous reservations. </span></li> </ul> <h4>Water</h4> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Universalize the reach of water distribution.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Promote water recycling, hydric efficiency and seek unconventional sources, such as the desalination of seawater.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Rationalize irrigation methods, prioritizing technologies that reduce water consumption.</span></li> </ul> <h4>Development</h4> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Cut taxes on &#8220;green&#8221; investments by 46 percent.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Develop a new national development program, focused on sustainable actions to curb the effects of climate change.</span></li> </ul> <hr /> <h2>Ciro Gomes</h2> <div id="attachment_9411" style="width: 1034px" class="wp-caption alignnone"><img aria-describedby="caption-attachment-9411" class="size-large wp-image-9411" src="https://brazilian.report/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/mcmgo_abr_2007182082-1024x683.jpg" alt="ciro gomes environment brazil 2018 election president " width="1024" height="683" srcset="https://brazilian.report/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/mcmgo_abr_2007182082-1024x683.jpg 1024w, https://brazilian.report/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/mcmgo_abr_2007182082-300x200.jpg 300w, https://brazilian.report/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/mcmgo_abr_2007182082-768x512.jpg 768w, https://brazilian.report/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/mcmgo_abr_2007182082-610x407.jpg 610w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /><p id="caption-attachment-9411" class="wp-caption-text">Ciro Gomes</p></div> <h4>Energy</h4> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">His program proposes to stimulate the adoption of renewable energy sources such as biofuels, biomass, hydropower, solar, wind.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Mr. Gomes has already shown concern for the current model of privatizations. &#8220;We must improve regulation. Brazil has the cleanest energy matrix of the world, but our electricity bills are through the roof. And that&#8217;s because the government has handed control over to multinational companies.&#8221;</span></li> </ul> <h4>Transportation and fuels</h4> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Mr. Gomes&#8217; program has no proposal for the issue.</span></li> </ul> <h4>Agriculture and forestry</h4> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Develop pesticides specific to Brazilian crops, &#8220;which should be less toxic for humans and for the environment.&#8221;</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Create concessions for private corporations for the economic use of services allowed in conservation units.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Unite the National Environmental Program with the Forest Code and the National Water Resources Program.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Development of sustainable tourism.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Implementing the conservation units that have already been created by law, giving to the people who occupy the land their due compensation or reallocation.</span></li> </ul> <h4>Water</h4> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Universalize water and sewage treatment.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Promote annual evaluations of the adequate use of land in rural and urban areas. </span></li> </ul> <h4>Development</h4> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Develop a system to monitor carbon emissions.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Create a carbon tax, with goals for companies to progressively reduce their emissions.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Invest in housing, basic sanitation, recycling, telecommunications, urban mobility, railways, and biofuels.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Encourage sustainable innovation by stimulating startups.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Integrate data from multiple agencies in order to monitor the impact of human presence on the environment and climate change. </span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Rebuy all oil fields sold to foreign groups.</span></li> </ul> <hr /> <h2>Geraldo Alckmin</h2> <div id="attachment_9412" style="width: 1034px" class="wp-caption alignnone"><img aria-describedby="caption-attachment-9412" class="size-large wp-image-9412" src="https://brazilian.report/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/camplim05-1024x682.jpg" alt="geraldo alckmin environment brazil 2018 election president " width="1024" height="682" srcset="https://brazilian.report/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/camplim05.jpg 1024w, https://brazilian.report/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/camplim05-300x200.jpg 300w, https://brazilian.report/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/camplim05-768x512.jpg 768w, https://brazilian.report/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/camplim05-610x406.jpg 610w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /><p id="caption-attachment-9412" class="wp-caption-text">Geraldo Alckmin</p></div> <h4>Energy</h4> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Mr. Alckmin&#8217;s program has no proposal for the issue. He has, though, defended that the government should stop intervening with the energy market and promote more privatizations. &#8220;We will defend free commerce,&#8221; said the Brazilian Social Democracy Party candidate.</span></li> </ul> <h4>Transportation and fuels</h4> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Mr. Alckmin&#8217;s program has no proposal for the issue.</span></li> </ul> <h4>Agriculture and forestry</h4> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Transforming family agriculture programs into a multi-year program that would give stability to small producers.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">&#8220;Give special attention to the management of the Amazon.&#8221;</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Create a variable oil tax, that would fluctuate to compensate for the rise of oil in international markets.</span></li> </ul> <h4>Water</h4> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Mr. Alckmin&#8217;s program has no proposal for the issue.</span></li> </ul> <h4>Development</h4> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">&#8220;Pursue the goals established by the Paris Accords.&#8221;</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Prioritize development projects in the North and Northeast in areas like sustainable development, and creative economy.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Promote Industry 4.0.</span></li> </ul> <hr /> <h2>Marina Silva</h2> <div id="attachment_9413" style="width: 1034px" class="wp-caption alignnone"><img aria-describedby="caption-attachment-9413" class="size-large wp-image-9413" src="https://brazilian.report/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/dast-1024x610.jpg" alt="marina silva environment brazil 2018 election president " width="1024" height="610" srcset="https://brazilian.report/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/dast-1024x610.jpg 1024w, https://brazilian.report/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/dast-300x179.jpg 300w, https://brazilian.report/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/dast-768x457.jpg 768w, https://brazilian.report/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/dast-610x363.jpg 610w" sizes="(max-width: 1024px) 100vw, 1024px" /><p id="caption-attachment-9413" class="wp-caption-text">Marina Silva</p></div> <h4>Energy</h4> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Popularize solar power in small cities and vulnerable communities, building 1.5 million photovoltaic roofs by 2022, which would generate 3.5 GW of operational power.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">&#8220;Brazil worries too much about the pre-salt [deepwater oil reserves], when it should look to the Northeast and its &#8216;pre-sun&#8217; energy matrix.&#8221;</span></li> </ul> <h4>Transportation and fuels</h4> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Renew <a href="http://biomassmagazine.com/articles/14948/brazil-establishes-national-biofuels-policy">RenovaBio</a>, a stimulus program for biofuel producers, &#8220;which should create 1.4 million jobs by 2030.&#8221;</span></li> </ul> <h4>Agriculture and forestry</h4> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Compensate small producers who preserve the native forest in their land</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Reach zero deforestation by 2030.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Recover 12 million hectares of native forests by 2030, as set by the Paris Accords.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Improve the deforestation monitoring system.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Amplify low carbon initiatives through fiscal benefits.</span></li> </ul> <h4>Water</h4> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Universalize basic sanitation services and create a national program for the treatment of garbage, stimulating recycling and selective collections.</span></li> </ul> <h4>Development</h4> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Integrate public policies on areas such as taxes, industry, energy, agriculture, forestry, and garbage treatment to the goals of the Paris Accords.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Placing Petrobras at the center of investments in clean energy.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Using the National Development Bank (BNDES) to stimulate investments in clean projects.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Promote an urban development plan focused on reducing greenhouse-effect gases.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Implement Brazil&#8217;s Emission Reduction Market.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Incorporate a carbon tax into our federal tax system.

Read the full story NOW!

BY The Brazilian Report

We are an in-depth content platform about Brazil, made by Brazilians and destined to foreign audiences.